Common Name
Narcissus, daffodil, paper white
Botanic Name
Narcissus L. species
Plant Family
Temperate areas
Worldwide, Hardy in USDA zones 3-8.
Animals Affected
Cattle, dogs, humans
Narcissus species (Paper whites)
Toxic Principle
At least 15 phenanthridine alkaloids including lycorine, have been identified in the leaves, stems and bulbs of Narcissus. The concentrations of the alkaloids are highest in the outer layers of the bulbs. Phenanthridine alkaloids have been isolated from other genera of the Amaryllis family, including species of Amaryllis, Clivia, Galanthus, Hippeastrum, Haemanthus, Hymenocallis, Leucojum, Nerine, Sprekelia, and Zephranthes
The Narcissus genus consists of approximately 60 species that originate from Europe, North Africa and western Asia. A large number of hybrids in cultivars have been developed and are horticulturally grouped into 12 divisions based upon the size and shape of the trumpet and the petals. Plants develop from bulbs that vary considerably in size and shape, being ovoid with brown papery membranes. The leaves are basal direct or spreading, with blades. Flowers either single flowers or clusters of up to 20 flowers and are generally large and showy, fragrant or not fragrant, and ranging in color from white or yellow or orange.
Vomiting, salivation, diarrhea, large ingestions may cause convulsions, low blood pressure, tremors and cardiac arrythmias.
Specific treatment is usually not necessary
Cardiovascular system
Special Notes
The bulbs also contain calcium oxalate raphides that are largely responsible for the contact irritant dermatitis, that is common in people who frequently handle the bulbs.
Daffodils (Narcissus spp.)
Bulbs for sale